Une petite flûtiste » Commenter cet article. In 1877, aged 75, he wrote, "I am not one of these sweet-tempered old men. Elle est jolie cette chanson je ne me souviens pas l'avoir entendue , merci de l'avoir partagée Bises. francia romantikus költő, regény- és drámaíró, politikus és akadémikus. Though Hugo's popularity was on the decline at the time of its publication, many now consider Ninety-Three to be a work on par with Hugo's better-known novels. La infancia de Victor Hugo transcurrió en Besançon, salvo dos años (1811-1812) en que residió con su familia en Madrid, donde su padre había sido nombrado comandante general. Hugo left five sentences as his last will, to be officially published: Je donne cinquante mille francs aux pauvres. His legacy has been honoured in many ways, including his portrait being placed on French currency. The youngest son of Joseph Léopold Sigisbert Hugo (1774–1828) a general in the Napoleonic army, and Sophie Trébuchet (1772–1821); the couple had two more sons: Abel Joseph (1798–1855) and Eugène (1800–1837). SPIP 3.1.11 [24407] On 28 June, the city of Paris changed the name of the Avenue d'Eylau to Avenue Victor-Hugo. We rise up first of all by exercising our imagination, albeit through our “caprichos” (whims or fantasies) or “disparates” (follies) as Goya said. He also composed or published some of his best work during his period in Guernsey, including Les Misérables, and three widely praised collections of poetry (Les Châtiments, 1853; Les Contemplations, 1856; and La Légende des siècles, 1859). :bulletred: Intro : Les Djinns, comme tout calligramme, n'est pas destiné à devenir une forme classique puisque la forme est adaptée au fond. Un calligramme est un poème dont la disposition sur la page forme un dessin. 2. Aux arbres, un poème de Victor Hugo. [10] Victor moved in with his mother 18 rue des Petits-Augustins the following year and began attending law school. Guillaume Apollinaire poems, quotations and biography on Guillaume Apollinaire poet page. On one of the pages of his notes about the prison, he wrote in large block letters a possible name for his hero: " JEAN TRÉJEAN". Hang him! Fraenkel ca. Léopold Hugo wrote to his son that he had been conceived on one of the highest peaks in the Vosges Mountains, on a journey from Lunéville to Besançon. Victor Hugo is the namesake of the city of Hugoton, Kansas.[68]. He wrote many poems afterward about his daughter's life and death, and at least one biographer claims he never completely recovered from it. The surviving drawings are surprisingly accomplished and "modern" in their style and execution, foreshadowing the experimental techniques of Surrealism and Abstract expressionism. The school Lycée Victor Hugo was founded in his town of birth, Besançon in France. Dans la plaine Naît un bruit. Poème d’amitié Victor Hugo Une collection de poèmes d’amitié de Victor Hugo. Victor Hugo est élu à l'Académie Française en 1841 et Pair de France en 1845. [19] Thereafter, he became increasingly involved in French politics. Download books for free. Poème calligramme Extrait du recueil de poèmes "Yeux" de Nicole Coppey Poème traduit en araméen © Nicole Coppey Novembre 2013. La voix plus haute Semble un grelot. [17] Other speeches called for universal suffrage and free education for all children. He was in Paris during the siege by the Prussian Army in 1870, famously eating animals given to him by the Paris Zoo. Victor Hugo Écouter, né le 26 février 1802 à Besançon et mort le 22 mai 1885 à Paris, est un poète, dramaturge et prosateur romantique considéré comme l’un des plus importants écrivains de … [13] Les Contemplations and La Légende … Où je l'ai vue ouvrir son aile et s'envoler! 04/12/2012 Serge Martin Laisser un commentaire. […] Now overthrow the scaffold. "), 1866. 2. On 20 May 1885, le Petit Journal published the official medical bulletin on Hugo's health condition. [33], Victor Hugo, who said "A war between Europeans is a civil war",[34] was an enthusiastic advocate for the creation of the United States of Europe. - LA MARCHE - Tutorial Victor Hugo's epic form - L - LA MARCHE - Tutorial Victor Hugo's epic form - English version below, by me - be indulgent - :lol: « LA MARCHE » Un tutoriel inspiré par le chef-d'œuvre « Les Djinns » de Victor Hugo. He was not only revered as a towering figure in literature, he was a statesman who shaped the Third Republic and democracy in France. Victor Marie Hugo, född 26 februari 1802 i Besançon, död 22 maj 1885 i Paris, var en fransk författare, dramatiker och diktare, samt ledamot av franska akademien.Hugo är bland annat berömd för romanerna Ringaren i Notre Dame (1831) och Samhällets olycksbarn (1862). C’est le poète français Guillaume Apollinaire qui est à l’origine du mot calligramme, formé par la contraction de « calligraphie » (art de bien écrire) et d’idéogramme (symbole graphique représentant un mot où une idée, comme les hiéroglyphes égyptiens ou les caractères chinois) combien de marins, combien de capitaines Qui sont partis joyeux pour des courses lointaines, Dans ce morne horizon se sont évanouis ! This square is served by a Paris Métro stop also named in his honour. Les calligrammes ont été créés : Durant l’antiquité Au moyen-âge Au XXème siècle 4. Columbia Encyclopedia, 6th Edition (2001–05). From both sides, folly. Guy de Maupassant, La Vie errante (extrait, p. 6 dossier) 4. 5 avr. Voir plus d'idées sur le thème ecrivain francais, ecrivain, litterature. Hugo is considered to be one of the greatest and best-known French writers. Je refuse l'oraison de toutes les Églises. C’est le poète français Guillaume Apollinaire qui est à l’origine du mot calligramme, formé par la contraction de « calligraphie » (art de bien écrire) et d’idéogramme (symbole graphique représentant un mot où une idée, comme les … Un calligramme est un poème dont la disposition sur la page forme un dessin. [57] Letters addressed to the author were from then on labelled "To Mister Victor Hugo, In his avenue, Paris". In a letter to American abolitionist Maria Weston Chapman, on 6 July 1851, Hugo wrote: Slavery in the United States! Hugo's popularity as a playwright grew with subsequent plays, such as Marion Delorme (1831), The King Amuses Himself (1832), and Ruy Blas (1838). He became a mentor to Victor and his brothers. Je veux être enterré dans leur corbillard. Combien ont disparu, dure et triste fortune ! Szellemi formálódására hatással volt királypárti meggyőződésű édesanyja és tábornok apja, aki Napóleon … Hugo, Victor, Choses vues, Gallimard, 1972, Peace Congress, 2d, Paris, 1849. Dedicated to the channel island of Guernsey, where he spent 15 years of exile, Hugo tells of a man who attempts to win the approval of his beloved's father by rescuing his ship, intentionally marooned by its captain who hopes to escape with a treasure of money it is transporting, through an exhausting battle of human engineering against the force of the sea and a battle against an almost mythical beast of the sea, a giant squid. jazzy57 23/06/2015 14:26. Elle brame Comme une âme Qu'une flamme Toujours suit. Both a graphomaniac and erotomaniac, he systematically reported his casual affairs using his own code, as Samuel Pepys did, to make sure they would remain secret. Malheureusement en hiver Nous manquons de chaleur, Même les cœurs sont froids. [63] Academia.edu is a platform for academics to share research papers. Les temps sont tristes - Dans le gobelet du mendiant Plus de pluie que de pièces. Ils ont cherché tous les mots en rapport avec leur thème et les ont rassemblés pour écrire une histoire. Calligramme; Culture; P; Contact [Samedi poésie] Victor Hugo - Souvenir de la nuit du 4 23 Janvier 2016, 11:40am | Publié par Matthieu Ledoré. During a literary career that spanned more than sixty years, he wrote abundantly in an exceptional variety of genres: lyrics, satires, epics, philosophical poems, epigrams, novels, history, critical essays, political speeches, funeral orations, diaries, letters public and private, as well as dramas in verse and prose. VICTOR HUGO (1802-1885) : Les Contemplations, « Vieille chanson du jeune temps » Je ne songeais pas à Rose ; Rose au bois vint avec moi ; Nous parlions de quelque chose, Mais je ne sais plus de quoi. Scroll down to the Assemblée Constituante 1848 heading and subsequent pages. Read all poems of Guillaume Apollinaire and infos about Guillaume Apollinaire. A classic is a book, or any other work of art, accepted as being exemplary or noteworthy, for example through an imprimatur such as being listed in a list of great books, or through a reader's personal opinion.Although the term is often associated with the Western canon, it can be applied to works of literature, music and art, etc. Hugo, Victor, Choses vues, 1870–1885, Gallimard, 1972. Because then the elements (of history) become unleashed. Le Rocher de l'Ermitage dans un paysage imaginaire ("Ermitage Rock in an imaginary landscape"). Victor-Marie Hugo was born on 26 February 1802 in Besançon in Eastern France. Hugo's advocacy to abolish the death penalty was renowned internationally. Hugo produced more than 4,000 drawings. Simone L.V. Though a committed royalist when he was young, Hugo's views changed as the decades passed, and he became a passionate supporter of republicanism serving in politics as both deputy and senator. Hugo suffered a mild stroke on 27 June 1878. Your prayer knows its way better than you do". Despite his personal loss, Hugo remained committed to the cause of political change. Outside France, his most famous works are the novels Les Misérables, 1862, and The Hunchback of Notre-Dame (French: Notre-Dame de Paris), 1831. Victor Hugo, fransk dikter, en av de fremste skikkelser i fransk kulturliv. [64], For more than seven years, Léonie d’Aunet, who was a married woman, was involved in a love relationship with Hugo. Although Napoleon III granted an amnesty to all political exiles in 1859, Hugo declined, as it meant he would have to curtail his criticisms of the government. [22], After coming in contact with Victor Schœlcher, a writer who fought for the abolition of slavery and French colonialism in the Caribbean, he started strongly campaigning against slavery. [8], In 1811 the family joined their father in Spain, Victor and his brothers were sent to school in Madrid at the Real Colegio de San Antonio de Abad while Sophie returned to Paris on her own, now officially separated from her husband. Napoleon byl … She is my widow." Tous les poèmes et textes par ordre alphabétique. When the book was finally written, Tréjean became Jean Valjean.[14]. Texte et poèmes de Victor Hugo. For example, Hugo's novel against capital punishment, The Last Day of a Condemned Man, was adapted into an opera by David Alagna, with a libretto by Frédérico Alagna and premièred by their brother, tenor Roberto Alagna, in 2007. The precocious passion and eloquence of Hugo's early work brought success and fame at an early age. The Hugo family came from Nancy in Lorraine where Victor Hugo's grandfather was a wood merchant. Hugo decided to live in exile after Napoleon III's coup d'état at the end of 1851. He left his children a note reading as follows : "J.D. [47], On the other hand, he had low esteem for Richard Wagner, whom he described as "a man of talent coupled with imbecility. Hugo turned away from social/political issues in his next novel, Les Travailleurs de la Mer (Toilers of the Sea), published in 1866. L'instant, pleurs superflus ! It is reported that Hugo often drew with his left hand or without looking at the page, or during Spiritist séances, to access his unconscious mind, a concept only later popularised by Sigmund Freud. B. Calligramme “Salut Paris” Apollinaire (p. 15 dossier) 3. He frequented spiritism during his exile (where he participated also in many séances conducted by Madame Delphine de Girardin)[37][38] and in later years settled into a rationalist deism similar to that espoused by Voltaire. May 3, 2016 - Explore Ragni's board "Calligramme de Guillaume" on Pinterest. The imagination makes mountains rise up. Les Misérables proved popular enough with the masses that the issues it highlighted were soon on the agenda of the National Assembly of France. However, in Pauvert's published archives, he states strongly that "any work of art has two authors: the people who confusingly feel something, a creator who translates these feelings, and the people again who consecrate his vision of that feeling. Hugo later titled himself as a viscount, and it was as "Vicomte Victor Hugo" that he was appointed a peer of France on 13 April 1845. : mardi 5 janvier 2021. Uden for Frankrig er Hugo mest kendt for sine romaner, der er blevet iscenesat utallige gange på film, teater, musicals og tegnefilm. Dans une mer sans fond, par une nuit sans lune, Sous l'aveugle océan à jamais enfouis ! After the Siege of Paris from 1870 to 1871, Hugo lived again in Guernsey from 1872 to 1873, and then finally returned to France for the remainder of his life. Throughout his life Hugo kept believing in unstoppable humanistic progress. Hugo was at the forefront of the Romantic literary movement with his play Cromwell and drama Hernani. Victor fell in love and secretly became engaged, against his mother's wishes, to his childhood friend Adèle Foucher. A bust of Hugo stands near the entrance of the Old Summer Palace in Beijing. The Hugo family came from Nancy in Lorraine where Victor Hugo's grandfather was a wood merchant. L'accompagnement pédagogique fait l'historique du calligramme, depuis les idéogrammes chinois jusqu'à la poésie contemporaine, en passant par les Djinns de Victor Hugo. Die Kindheit der Brüder war sehr unruhig. Victor-Marie Hugo (French: [viktɔʁ maʁi yɡo] (listen); 7 Ventôse year X [26 February 1802] – 22 May 1885) was a French poet, novelist, and dramatist of the Romantic movement. Après la visite contée de l’exposition "Fortuny, un Espagnol à Venise", chaque participant sera invité à réaliser un calligramme inspiré d’une robe ou d’un objet de Mariano Fortuny. He describes his shock and grief in his famous poem "À Villequier": Hélas ! Two days before dying, he left a note with these last words: "To love is to act". Sometimes he would even toss in coffee or soot to get the effects he wanted. He was confident that he would be offered the dictatorship, as shown by the notes he kept at the time: "Dictatorship is a crime. Because of his concern for the rights of artists and copyright, he was a founding member of the Association Littéraire et Artistique Internationale, which led to the Berne Convention for the Protection of Literary and Artistic Works. From February 1833 until her death in 1883, Juliette Drouet devoted her whole life to Victor Hugo, who never married her even after his wife died in 1868. He was honoured by interment in the Panthéon. La meilleure citation de Victor Hugo préférée des internautes. Henri Meschonnic, (1982, p. 299) Deux métaphores parcourent le commentaire sur la poésie depuis les origines. Vocabulary French Dire Surrealism Language Orange Books Vintage Beautiful. C. Pulsoni, "L'orazione di Victor Hugo trasformata in musica". Foucher-Hugo Adèle, Victor Hugo raconté par Adèle Hugo, Plon, 1985, 861 p.. Hugo, Victor, Choses vues 1849–1885, Gallimard, 1972, 1014 pp.. Hugo, Victor, Choses vues 1870–1885, 529 p., International Alliance of Libertarian Parties, International Federation of Liberal Youth, Association Littéraire et Artistique Internationale, Berne Convention for the Protection of Literary and Artistic Works, "Pairs de France : HUGO Marie-Victor, vicomte Hugo", "Victor Hugo: Les Misérables – From Page to Stage research guide", "Briefest Correspondence: Question Mark? More than two million people joined his funeral procession in Paris from the Arc de Triomphe to the Panthéon, where he was buried. A Freethinker". Hugo counted 740 attacks on Les Misérables in the Catholic press. In June 1821 Sophie Trebuchet died, and Léopold married his long time mistress Catherine Thomas a month later. "The illustrious patient" was fully conscious and aware that there was no hope for him. After a rendezvous with a young woman named Laetitia he would write Joie (Happiness) in his diary. In Havana, Cuba, there is a park named after him. Pour réaliser un calligramme il faut : Simplement un crayon et une gomme De quoi écrire et des poèmes Uniquement des dessins de fleurs 2. His last novel, Quatre-vingt-treize (Ninety-Three), published in 1874, dealt with a subject that Hugo had previously avoided: the Reign of Terror during the French Revolution. The paraders marched for six hours past Hugo as he sat at the window at his house. They also reported from a reliable source that at one point in the night he had whispered the following Alexandrin, "En moi c’est le combat du jour et de la nuit" – "In me, this is the battle between day and night". 2014 - Cette épingle a été découverte par ghislaine. Today, the novel remains his most well-known work. 1798) a Eugéne Hugo (nar. Email. This is a crime I am going to commit", but he felt he had to assume that responsibility. Hugo var en engasjert politiker og ble valgt inn i både grunnlovsforsamlingen og … Où je criai : L'enfant que j'avais tout à l'heure, Cent mille hommes, criblés d'obus et de mitraille, Cent mille hommes, couchés sur un champ de bataille, Tombés pour leur pays par leur mort agrandi, Comme on tombe à Fleurus, comme on tombe à Lodi, Cent mille ardents soldats, héros et non victimes, Morts dans un tourbil « D’hymnes d’hommes comblés des dons du juste éther, Îles ! Victor Hugo (født 26. februar 1802 i Besançon, Frankrig, død 22. maj 1885 i Paris) var en fransk forfatter, far til Charles og François Victor Hugo. Claude Gueux, a documentary short story about a real-life murderer who had been executed in France, appeared in 1834 and was later considered by Hugo himself to be a precursor to his great work on social injustice, Les Misérables. I wish to be buried in their hearse. Huitième problème avec la poésie : il y a les poèmes visuels… et sonores. [32] This caused so much uproar that in the evening a mob of fifty to sixty men attempted to force their way into the writer's house shouting "Death to Victor Hugo! When Louis Napoleon (Napoleon III) seized complete power in 1851, establishing an anti-parliamentary constitution, Hugo openly declared him a traitor to France. For me she underwent exile. Mismas cosas: The same. The word used in Guernsey to refer to squid (pieuvre, also sometimes applied to octopus) was to enter the French language as a result of its use in the book. Find books He is considered one of the greatest and best known French writers. Jean Hugo : dessins des années de guerre, 1915-1919 : 16 octobre 1994-30 janvier 1995 = Jean Hugo : drawings of the war years, 1915-1919 : October 16th, 1994-January 30th, 1995 by Jean Hugo ( Book ) Jean Hugo : [exposition] Maison de Victor Hugo, 22 novembre 1994-26 février 1995 by Jean Hugo ( Book ) Exploitation possible : lecture analytique du poème. For instance, he resorted to Latin abbreviations (osc. He queried the reaction to the work by sending a single-character telegram to his publisher, asking .mw-parser-output .monospaced{font-family:monospace,monospace}?. It is popular worldwide and has been adapted for cinema, television, and stage shows. A street in San Francisco, Hugo Street, is named for him.[67]. Le calligramme est une forme poétique qui existe depuis l'Antiquité mais reste peu employée jusqu'à la publication par Guillaume Apollinaire d'un recueil intitulé Calligrammes en 1918. Victor Hugo byl třetím synem Josepha Léopolda Sigisberta Huga a Sophie Trébuchetové.Narodil se v roce 1802 v Besançonu a žil ve Francii po většinu svého života. The pamphlets were banned in France but nonetheless had a strong impact there. The conference helped establish Hugo as a prominent public speaker and sparked his international fame, and promoted the idea of the "United States of Europe". In 1812 Victor Fanneau de La Horie was arrested and executed. Pasó su infancia en París y después tuvo frecuentes estancias en Nápoles y España a causa de los destinos de su progenitor. One of the effects of the novel was to shame the City of Paris into restoring the much-neglected Cathedral of Notre Dame, which was attracting thousands of tourists who had read the popular novel. to indicate its success. In 1871, after the death of his son Charles, Hugo took custody of his grandchildren Jeanne and Georges-Victor. "[2] Hugo believed himself to have been conceived on 24 June 1801, which is the origin of Jean Valjean's prisoner number 24601. She saved my life in December 1851. Hugo, who was still banished from France, was unable to attend her funeral in Villequier where their daughter Léopoldine was buried. from all traditions, such as the Chinese classics or the Vedas. [30], During the Paris Commune – the revolutionary government that took power on 18 March 1871 and was toppled on 28 May – Victor Hugo was harshly critical of the atrocities committed on both sides. 26 lutego 1802 w Besançon, zm. A census-taker asked Hugo in 1872 if he was a Catholic, and he replied, "No. Portrait de Victor Hugo par Nadar. Le logis était propre, humble, paisible, honnête ; On voyait un rameau bénit sur un portrait. An apocryphal tale[16] about the shortest correspondence in history is said to have been between Hugo and his publisher Hurst and Blackett in 1862. C'est l'haleine De la nuit. The Belgian publishing house Lacroix and Verboeckhoven undertook a marketing campaign unusual for the time, issuing press releases about the work a full six months before the launch. Il fuit, s'élance, Élete és művészete szinte teljesen átfogta a 19. századot. If he added t.n. Although Napoleon III proclaimed a general amnesty in 1859, under which Hugo could have safely returned to France, the author stayed in exile, only returning when Napoleon III was forced from power as a result of the French defeat in the Franco-Prussian War in 1870. His opposition to absolutism and his colossal literary achievement established him as a national hero. Paris, fierté de la nation. The house where he stayed in Vianden, Luxembourg, in 1871 has also become a commemorative museum. He took her on his numerous trips and she followed him in exile on Guernsey. Adèle and Victor Hugo had their first child, Léopold, in 1823, but the boy died in infancy. The Academicians refused to believe that he was only fifteen. À Alexandre D. 4. Les romans les plus connus de Victor Hugo sont "Notre-Dame de Paris" (1831) et"Les Miserables" (1862). He had been in Brussels since 22 March 1871 when in the 27 May issue of the Belgian newspaper l’Indépendance Victor Hugo denounced the government's refusal to grant political asylum to the Communards threatened with imprisonment, banishment or execution. Victor Hugo fought a lifelong battle for the abolition of the death penalty as a novelist, diarist, and member of Parliament. I leave 50,000 francs to the poor. Jeden z najważniejszych twórców literatury francuskiej i czołowy przedstawiciel romantyzmu francuskiego.. Autor poezji, dramatów wierszem i prozą oraz … [58] Le Matin published a slightly different version, "Here is the battle between day and night. Hugo's novel Notre-Dame de Paris (The Hunchback of Notre-Dame) was published in 1831 and quickly translated into other languages across Europe. Victor Hugo, poet, novelist, and dramatist who was the most important of the French Romantic writers. In his will, he made the same stipulation about his own death and funeral. Je crois en Dieu. Never has her soul forsaken mine. Sublime poème de notre immense poète, dont les 10 derniers vers , sont extraordinairement proclamés par Michel VUILLERMOZ (qui joue le rôle de Hugues), vers la fin du très beau téléfilm français produit par AGAT Films « Les pieds dans le tapis » de Nader Takmil HOMAYOUN, daté de … Il est alors remarqué par le roi Louis XVIII qui lui verse une pension. More than one hundred operas are based on Hugo's works and among them are Donizetti's Lucrezia Borgia (1833), Verdi's Rigoletto (1851) and Ernani (1844), and Ponchielli's La Gioconda (1876). On the nomination of King Louis-Philippe, Hugo entered the Higher Chamber as a pair de France in 1845, where he spoke against the death penalty and social injustice, and in favour of freedom of the press and self-government for Poland. I am still exasperated and violent. Après avoir observé quelques exemple de calligrammes, les élèves se sont regroupés par deux et ont choisi un mot parmi ceux que l’on avait déposés dans la bouteille de la séance 1. Victor Hugo's first mature work of fiction was first published in February 1829 by Charles Gosselin without the author's name and reflected the acute social conscience that would infuse his later work. This might partly explain why in spite of his deep interest and involvement in political matters he remained silent on the Algerian issue. [53] Despite his popularity, Hugo lost his bid for re-election to the National Assembly in 1872. [49], Hugo's novels, as well as his plays, have been a great source of inspiration for musicians, stirring them to create not only opera and ballet but musical theatre such as Notre-Dame de Paris and the ever-popular Les Misérables, London West End's longest running musical. Suivez-moi. Hugo is venerated as a saint in the Vietnamese religion of Cao Đài, a new religion established in Vietnam in 1926. "[28] His influence was credited in the removal of the death penalty from the constitutions of Geneva, Portugal, and Colombia. In France, Hugo is renowned for his poetry collections, such as Les Contemplations (The Contemplations) and La Légende des siècles (The Legend of the Ages). Petri Liukkonen. These parliamentary speeches are published in Œuvres complètes: actes et paroles I : avant l'exil, 1841–1851. Exemple : for kisses) or to Spanish (Misma. Paul Eluard. Un calligramme est un poème dont la mise en page forme un dessin, généralement en rapport avec le sujet du texte. His most famous poem is undeniably "Demain, dès l'aube" (Tomorrow, at Dawn), in which he describes visiting her grave. Victor Hugo (født 26. februar 1802, død 22. mai 1885) var en fransk forfatter.Blant hans viktigste verker er romanene Ringeren i Notre-Dame og Les Misérables (De elendige).I tillegg til sine romaner skrev han også mye poesi og dramatikk. Homophones are frequent: Seins (Breasts) becomes Saint; Poële (Stove) actually refers to Poils (Pubic hair). A group of French academicians, particularly Étienne de Jouy, were fighting against the "romantic evolution" and had managed to delay Victor Hugo's election. Tous droits réservés, Ce site est géré sous Plus tard, il met son exil (1851-187…